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 ADJECTIVES

WHAT IS ADJECTIVES?

THE WORDS WHICH TELL US MORE ABOUT THE NOUNS.SUCH DESCRIBING WORDS THAT US MORE ABOUT THE NOUN ARE KNOWN AS ADJECTIVES.
AN ADJECTIVES CAN BE A NUMBER, SHAPE, SIZE, FEELING, QUALITY, QUANTITY, EXPRESSION OR COLOUR.

FOR EXAMPLE - 
SHE HAS A LONG, BLACK HAIR.
I HAVE TWO CLOSE FRIENDS.
THE WORDS IN BOLD TELL US MORE ABOUT THE NOUNS, THE WORDS LONG AND BLACK TELLS US ABOUT THE HAIR. THE WORDS TWO AND CLOSE TELLS US MORE ABOUT THE FRIENDS.ANOTHER EXAMPLES ARE :
  • SACHIN TENDULKAR IS A GREAT BATSMAN.
  • THE SUN IS A HOT BALL OF FIRE.
  • ARTHA HAS A SWEET SMILE.
  • AKBAR WAS A GREAT KING.
  • THE BOY COULD NOT LIFT THE HEAVY BOX.
  • TARUN HAS A BLACK CAR.
  • THERE ARE THREE COLOURS IN OUR FLAG.
IN BOLD LETTERS ALL ARE ADJECTIVES.
AGAIN HERE IS THE SHORT STORY. FIND THE ADJECTIVES IN THE STORY.

ONCE, THERE WAS A YOUNG BOY, KRISHNA. HE HAD BLACK HAIR AND BLUE EYES. HE STUDIED IN A BIG SCHOOL. THE SCHOOL WAS IN A NOISY CITY. HE WENT TO SCHOOL IN A YELLOW SCHOOL BUS. HIS FRIEND SWAYAM IS SHORT. BOTH WERE CARRYING NEW BAGS TO SCHOOL.
COMPLETE THE STORY WITH HELP OF ADJECTIVES GIVEN:


ADJECTIVES : DEGREE OF COMPARISON


COMPARE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES:
RAJ IS A TALL BOY.

RAJU IS TALLER THAN RAJ.

RAJESH IS THE TALLEST OF THE THREE.

IN THE ABOVE SENTENCES WE NOTICED THAT WE HAVE THREE FORMS OF ADJECTIVES "TALL". IN THE FIRST SENTENCE, WE DESCRIBE JUST ONE BOY. THE SIMPLEST FORM OF THE ADJECTIVE "TALL" HAS BEEN USED. THIS WORD "TALL" IS SAID TO BE IN THE POSITIVE DEGREE. WE USE THE POSITIVE DEGREE OF AN ADJECTIVE WHEN WE ARE NOT MAKING ANY COMPARISON.

IN THE SECOND SENTENCE, WE COMPARE TWO BOYS, RAJ AND RAJU. WE SAY THAT RAJU IS TALLER THAN RAJ. THE ADJECTIVE "TALL" IS CHANGED INTO "TALLER". THIS FORM IS CALLED THE COMPARATIVE DEGREE. THE WORD "TALLER" IS SAID TO BE IN THE COMPARATIVE FORM. WE USE THE COMPARATIVE DEGREE OF AN ADJECTIVE WHEN WE ARE COMPARING TWO PERSONS OR THINGS OR TWO GROUPS OF PERSONS OR THINGS. 

IN THE THIRD SENTENCE, WE COMPARE MORE THAN TWO BOYS. THE ADJECTIVE "TALL" IS CHANGED INTO "TALLEST". THIS FORM IS CALLED THE SUPERLATIVE DEGREE. WE USE THE SUPERLATIVE DEGREE OF AN ADJECTIVE WHEN WE ARE COMPARING MORE THAN TWO PERSONS OR THINGS OR MORE THAN TWO GROUPS OF PERSONS OR THINGS.

WHAT IS COMPARATIVE DEGREE?

WE USE ADJECTIVE WHEN WE ARE COMPARING TWO PERSONS OR THINGS OR TWO GROUPS OF PERSON OR THINGS. CALLED COMPARATIVE DEGREE. IT IS THE COMPARISON OF TWO PERSONS OR THINGS OR GROUPS.

WHAT IS SUPERLATIVE DEGREE?

WE USE AN ADJECTIVE WHEN WE ARE COMPARING MORE THAN TWO PERSONS OR THINGS OR MORE THAN TWO GROUPS OF PERSONS OR THINGS. IT IS THE COMPARISON OF MORE THAN TWO  PERSON OR THING OR GROUPS.

COMNPARING  THE ANOTHER SENTENCE:
A HIPPOPOTAMUS IS A LARGE ANIMAL.

AN ELEPHANT IS LARGER THAN A HIPPOPOTAMUS.

THE WHALE IS THE LARGEST ANIMAL.

TO DESCRIBE A PERSON, PLACE, ANIMAL OR OBJECT, WE USE THE POSITIVE ADJECTIVE. E.G. A HIPPOPOTAMUS IS A LARGE ANIMAL.

WE USE COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE TO COMPARE TWO THINGS. TO MAKE AN ADJECTIVE INTO COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE WE USUALLY ADD '-ER'. E.G. AN ELEPHANT IS LARGER THAN A HIPPOPOTAMUS. WE USE 'THAN' WITH THE COMPARATIVE FORM.

WE USE SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVE TO COMPARE THREE OR MORE THINGS. TO MAKE AN ADJECTIVE INTO A SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVE, WE USUALLY ADD '-EST'. E.G. THE WHALE IS THE LARGEST ANIMAL.  WE USE 'THE' WITH SUPERLATIVE FORM.

NOW WE LEARN THE FORMATION OF DEGREE.
TO SHOW DEGREE WE USUALLY ADD '-ER' AND 'EST'.
  1. MOST ADJECTIVE FORM THEIR COMPARATIVE DEGREES BY ADDING '-ER' AND THEIR SUPERLATIVE BY ADDING '-EST' TO THE POSITIVE:
EXAMPLE:-
SHORT                            SHORTER                    SHORTEST
GREAT                            GREATER                    GREATEST
THICK                             THICKER                    THICKEST
POOR                                POORER                     POOREST
SWEET                             SWEETER                  SWEETEST

    2. IF THE POSITIVE ENDS IN '-E' THEN '-R' AND '-ST' ARE ADDED TO FORM THE COMPARATIVE AND THE SUPERLATIVE RESPECTIVELY:
EXAMPLE:-
LARGE                            LARGER                        LARGEST
BRAVE                            BRAVER                        BRAVEST
NOBLE                            NOBLER                       NOBLEST
FINE                                FINER                           FINEST
WISE                                WISER                          WISEST

    3. IF THE POSITIVE ENDS IN '-Y' AND THERE IS A CONSONANT BEFORE IT, THE '-Y' IS CHANGED INTO '-I' BEFORE ADDING '-ER' AND '-EST'. BUT  IF THE '-Y' HAS A VOWEL BEFORE IT, THEN '-Y' IS NOT CHANGED INTO '-I'. SIMPLY '-ER' AND '-EST' ARE ADDED TO GET THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE DEGREE.
EXAMPLE:-
HAPPY                            HAPPIER                       HAPPIEST
PRETTY                          PRETTIER                     PRETTIEST
LAZY                                LAZIER                          LAZIEST
EASY                                EASIER                          EASIEST
LOVELY                           LOVELIER                     LOVELIEST
GREY                                GREYER                        GREYEST

    4. SOME ADJECTIVES FORM THEIR COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE BY ADDING 'MORE' AND 'MOST' BEFORE THEM.
EXAMPLE:-
CAREFUL                        MORE CAREFUL        MOST CAREFUL
DANGEROUS                  MORE DANGEROUS  MOST DANGEROUS
BEAUTIFUL                    MORE BEAUTIFUL    MOST BEAUTIFUL
COURAGEOUS               MORE COURAGEOUS MOST COURAGEOUS
INTERESTING               MORE INTERESTING MOST INTERESTING
WONDERFUL                MORE WONDERFUL   MOST WONDERFUL
FAITHFUL                     MORE FAITHFUL         MOST FAITHFUL

    5. SOMETIMES THE LAST LETTER OF THE POSITIVE IS DOUBLED BEFORE ADDING  '-ER' AND '-EST'.
EXAMPLE:-
SAD                                SADDER                       SADDEST
HOT                               HOTTER                       HOTTEST
MAD                              MADDER                      MADDEST
THIN                             THINNER                     THINNEST
BIG                                 BIGGER                        BIGGEST

    6. SOME ADJECTIVES DO NOT FOLLOW ANY RULE WHILE FORMING THEIR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES.
EXAMPLE:-
GOOD                             BETTER                           BEST
BAD                                WORSE                            WORST
FAR                                FARTHER/FURTHER    FARTHEST/ FURTHEST
MUCH                            MORE                              MOST
LITTLE                           LESS                                LEAST
OLD                                OLDER/ ELDER              OLDEST/ELDEST

IN SHORT ABOVE ALL RULES ARE USED TO FORM COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORM OF ADJECTIVE. 

FOLLOWING ARE SOME EXCERSICE FOR UR BETTER UNDERSTANDING.

MATCH THE TABLE 


FILL IN THE BLANKS


COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SEQUENCE:



SELECT THE ADJECTIVES IN THE FOLLOWING


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